What is Computer? Full Guide [Computer Types]

In this post, you will learn what a computer. ? and types of computer

If you will find all this in detail in this article, then please read this post until the last time to get full computer information.

What is Computer ?

A computer is an electronic device for performing mathematical and non-mathematical tasks. It takes data as input, processes it and provides meaningful results like output.

What is Computer - Parts

Complete Computer Full form

C – Common

O – Operating

M – Machine

P – Particular

U – Unit For

T – Technological

E – Educational

R – Research

History of Computer

The first digital computer and what many people think of as a computer was called ENIAC. It was built during World War II (1943-1946) and was designed to help make computerized calculations. By doing these calculations on a computer, they can achieve results very quickly and with a few errors.

Early computers like ENIAC used cleaning tubes and were large (sometimes room size) and only available to businesses, universities, or governments. Later, computers began to use transistors with smaller and cheaper components that allowed the average person to own a computer.

Computer Definition

In the 1640s, the Computer term was first used as “one who calculates.” From 1897, the name was changed to a new computer meaning “Calculating Machine”. Since 1945 the name has been identified as “digital computer”.

The word compute is derived from the Latin word ‘computare’, meaning “arithmetic, accounting”.

Computer Definition is a digital device that stores data in memory using input devices and uses data to generate output according to the instructions provided.

Generations of Computer

The development of computer systems is often discussed as the development of various generations.

In the succession of generations, advances in computer technology came along.

First Generation

  • The period 1940 to 1956, which is considered the First Computer Initiative.
  • First-generation computers are built using a vacuum tube or thermionic valve machine.
  • The inputs to the program were based on punched cards and tape tape; however, the output is shown in printouts.
  • First-generation computers operate on a concept with binary codes (e.g., Language 0-1). Examples: ENIAC, EDVAC, etc.

Second Generation

  • The period 1956 to 1963 is considered the era of the Second Generation of Computers.
  • Second-generation computers are developed using transistor technology.
  • Compared to the first generation, the size of the second generation was small.
  • Compared to first-generation computers, the computer time taken by second-generation computers was relatively short.

Third Generation

  • The period 1963 to 1971 is considered the Third Generation of computers.
  • Third-generation computers are developed using Integrated Circuit (IC) technology.
  • Third Generation Computers compared to second-generation computers, the size of third-generation computers was relatively small.
  • Compared to second-generation computers, the computer time taken by third-generation computers was relatively short.
  • The third-generation computer consumed less energy and produced less heat.
  • The cost of third-generation computer storage was also low.
  • The third-generation computer system was easy for commercial use.

Fourth Generation

  • The period 1972 to 2010 is considered the fourth generation of computers.
  • Fourth generation computers are developed using microprocessor technology.
  • Fourth Generation Computers with the advent of the fourth generation, the computer became much smaller in size, portable.
  • The fourth-generation machine began to produce very low temperatures.
  • It is faster and the accuracy became more reliable.
  • Production costs have been significantly lower compared to the previous generation.

Fifth Generation

  • The period 2010 to date and beyond, is considered the era of the fifth generation of computers.
  • At that time, the computer generation was split on the basis of hardware only, but the fifth generation technology included software.
  • Fifth generation computers had high capacity and a large amount of memory.
  • Computer work of this generation was fast and many tasks could be performed simultaneously.
  • Some of the most popular fifth generation technologies include artificial intelligence, Quantum calculations, Nanotechnology, similar processing, etc.

Characteristics of Computer

Characteristics of Computer

1. Speed: – As you know a computer can work very fast. It only takes a few seconds to count which we take hours to complete. You will be amazed to know that a computer can process millions (1,000,000) of commands and more per second.

Therefore, we determine the speed of a computer in a microsecond (10-6 fractions per second) or nanosecond (10 to power -9 part of a second). In this case, you can imagine how fast your computer is running.

2. Accuracy: – The level of computer accuracy is very high and all calculations are done with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is 7.

determined on the basis of computer design. Computer errors are caused by incorrect human data.

3. Diligence: – The computer does not have fatigue, inability to concentrate, fatigue, etc. It can work for many hours without making a mistake. If millions of calculations are to be performed, the computer will perform all the calculations with the same accuracy. As a result of this victory a person’s strength in the genre of normal work.

4. Variety: – Means the ability to do a completely different type of work. You can use your computer to prepare payroll slips. The next minute you can use it for asset management or to prepare electricity bills.

5. Memory Capacity: – The computer has the ability to store any amount of data or data. Any information can be stored and remembered as long as you need it, at any age. It is entirely up to you how much data you want to store on the computer and when it will be lost or recovered.

6. No IQ: – A computer is a mute machine and cannot perform any function without the user’s instruction. Perform commands with great speed and accuracy. It is up to you to decide what you want to do and how you go about it. So the computer cannot make its own decision as much as possible.

7. No Feelings: – No feelings or feelings, taste, knowledge, and experience. So they do not get tired even after working long hours. No distinction between users.

8. Storage: – A computer has a built-in memory where it can store a lot of data. You can also store data on second-hand devices such as floppies, which can be stored off your computer and transferred to other computers.

Basic Computer Components

Basic Components of Computer
Parts of Computer


The input unit is used for data signal transmission and green control in the user processing process prior to processing and calculation. All input unit devices that provide instructions and data are converted into binary codes which is an acceptable format for the main memory.

Example of input unit devices: keyboard, mouse, scanner, toy stick, MICR, inserted cards

Memory or Storage

The Memory or Storage unit is used to store data before and after processing. Storage capacity is expressed by Bytes.

The two terms Memory or Storage unit are used differently, so it is important to understand what is the difference between memory and storage?


This unit stores temporary results until further processing, for example, Random Access Memory (RAM) This memory does not change, which means that data disappears when power is lost.


Storage or “second storage” is used to store digital data after processing it permanently. An example is a hard drive. Storage is environmentally friendly. The CPU does not directly access the second storage memory, instead, it accesses the output-input unit. The contents of the last-second memory are first transferred to a large memory (RAM) and then to the CPU.

Output Unit

The Output Unit receives information from the CPU and sends it to external storage or device in soft or hard form. The devices used to display output to the user are called output devices. Monitor or printer is a standard output device.

Central Processing Unit

The main chip in the computer is the microprocessor chip, also known as the CPU (central processing unit). The CPU is mounted on a printed circuit board called a mainboard or motherboard.

This chip is considered to be a computer-controlled chip because it controls the activities of other chips and external devices connected to a computer, such as a monitor and a printer.

In addition, it can perform sensible and arithmetic operations. Microprocessors operate in the same system. The diagram shows the typical structure of one of the first-generation microprocessors. The latter are extremely complex, although the concept of basic design has not changed much.

Types of Computer

Computers Are Classified On Three Bases.

  1. Based On Mechanism
  2. Based On Purpose
  3. Based On Size
What is Computer and Types of Computer

Mechanism Based On Computer Type

Depending on the machine, the computer is divided into three parts of analog, digital, and hybrid.

1) Analog Computer

Analog computers are those computers used to measure materials such as thermometers.

  • Analog computers can also compare between two outputs.
  • Analog computers are widely used in the field of science and engineering because many materials are widely used in these areas.
  • Analog computers cannot process alpha numeric.

2) Digital Computer

Digital means. That is, a digital computer is a computer that calculates numbers.

  • Digital computer also performs mathematical performance such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, dividing.
  • Digital computer provides more direct effects than analog computer. But analog computers are faster than digital computers.

3) Hybrid computer

Hybrid is a computer made by combining the features of both analog and digital computers.

A hybrid computer is faster and both and its results are also clean. Hybrid computers are also used to perform scientific calculations.

It is a binary comprehension computer (0,1) and analog signal.

Hybrid speed ​​is not above analog computers or under digital computers.


  • Used in petrol pumps
  • Analog devices used in the icu to measure a patient’s blood pressure and temperature, which is then converted into a digital key form.

Computers have 2 types on a purpose basis

  • General Purpose Computer
  • Special purpose computer
  1. General purpose computer

The general-purpose computer is a computer that is designed for general purposes. These computers have the ability to do many tasks because they have a good CPU. And the cost is also less.

Many tasks can be done on these computers using different software.

Example – preparing, printing, designing, etc., a letter or document.
Can also do work related to database, and they are also used for shops, office, school and personal work.

2) Special Purpose Computer

As the name suggests, which should be used for a particular purpose. These computers are used to perform specific tasks or to solve a particular problem.

Special purpose compute is also called dedicated computers because they are meant to perform a single task repeatedly.

These computers are faster than normal computers but cannot do many tasks in comparison to them. This is its biggest drawback which cannot be used in other operations.
They are used in the following areas like meteorological department, agricultural science, medical field etc.

On the basis of size, these computers are divided into the following categories

1) Microcomputer

We can define Microcomputer in 2 ways, one in which a microprocessor is used and the other, which are smaller than other computers.

This computer is so small that it can even be kept in a briefcase. Being small does not mean that they cannot do the work, but they are capable of doing all the work. Only one person can work on these computers.

Internet becoming popular in a short time is due to micro pc. This computer is very popular because students, professionals all use it because it is very easy to operate them due to their size, low price, low maintenance cost.

These pcs are also called home or personal computers because they are operated by a single user. This computer also supports multimedia, languages, graphics and games etc.

Examples of microcomputers 

  • Desktop computer – desktop computers are computers that can be set up on a desk, they have a cpu, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It is difficult to move desktop computers from one place to another but their cost is low.
  • Laptop computer – laptop computers are very small, portable, and consume less power. At present, the most running laptops are computers. Any work can be done easily on it. It is very easy to move these computers from one place to another.
  • Notebook computer – notebook computers also work like laptops, just they are small in size and their working capacity is also high.
  • Palmtop computer – as the popularity of computers increased, meaning more use started, scientists developed a computer which came to be called palmtop computers. These computers are also used in remote areas. As its name suggests, you can use these computers in your palm as well.
  • Tablet computer – tablet computer is small and thin in size, it can also be taken anywhere. The currently popular tablet is either apple’s ipod or samsung galaxy’s pad. Their size and weight are very less.

2) Super Computer

The supercomputer is the fastest running computer which is used to overcome the problem of scientists and engineers.

More than one CPU is used in a supercomputer. And its speed is also very fast. It is the ability to solve a big problem in a very short time.

These computers are very big in size and are the most expensive. More than one person can work on these computers.

India’s first supercomputer param-8000 was made in the year 1991. It was developed by c-DAC, an organization of the government of India. The fastest supercomputers in India are pratyush and Mihir.

We can use supercomputers for different tasks.

  • It is used for military and defense system.
  • It is useful only in automobile, aircraft etc.
  • They are used to forecast the weather and global climates.

3) mini computer

Minicomputers are those computers that are used by big companies and govt. Servers in the office are used for computer work.

More than one person can operate these computers and their work capacity is also very high.

These computers are very expensive, that is why they are not used in homes because their hardware is much bigger than other computers.

  • The first mini computer pdp-8 was developed in the year 1965, its size was equal to a fridge and their cost was 18000 dollars.

Minicomputers have more than one CPU and are used for banking and passenger reservation system in traffic.

4) mainframe computer

These servers act as computers, they are also used to keep databases in big companies and government offices.

The working capacity of these computers is more than that of minicomputers. Because its hardware is bigger than a mini-computer.

Due to being more powerful, they are used to process data in large business organizations, industries, and defense because they have a lot of complexity.

Mainframe computers are used within these fields

  • In government office
  • In doing credit card processing
  • For industrial design
  • In marketing
  • In the banking sector

5) Workstation computer

Workstation computers are used for software development, desktops, engineering applications, etc.

  • These computers are very expensive and they have more working capacity than microcomputers. Large in size too.
  • These computers come with high resolution, more ram and inbuilt network support. These computers have been made keeping in mind the business and professional.

Also, Read this Article


In this post, you have learned what is Computer or the Characteristics and Types of computers. Friends, if you have any doubt related to this post, please tell by commenting and we will try to reply to your comment.

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