11th Class Computer Organization Questions Answer [CBSE]

In this page, I will explained short answer type questions of 11th Class Computer organization unit 1. In this, you will learn all types of questions answers related to Computer Organization. These questions are very important for IT(Information Technology) Exam under CBSE Board.

11th Class Computer Organization Question Answers

Q:- What is Computer ?

Ans:- Computer is an electronic device i.e. used to work with information or compute. It is derived from the Latin word “compute” which means to calculate.

The binary language, also called machine language, works on two digits 0 and 1.

Q:- Write the components of Computer .

Ans:- There are 5 main computer components that are given below:

  • Input Devices
  • CPU
  • Output Devices
  • Primary Memory
  • Secondary Memory

The operations of computer components are given below:

1) Inputting: It is the process of entering raw data, instructions and information into the computer. It is performed with the help of input devices.

2) Storing: The computer has primary memory and secondary storage to store data and instructions.

3) Processing: It is the process of converting the raw data into useful information. This process is performed by the CPU of the computer.

4) Outputting: It is the process of presenting the processed data through output devices like monitor, printer and speakers.

5) Controlling: This operation is performed by the control unit that is part of CPU. The control unit ensures that all basic operations are executed in a right manner and sequence.

Q:- Explain the Characteristics of Computer ?

Ans:- The characteristics of the computer system are as follows −


A computer works with much higher speed and accuracy compared to humans while performing mathematical calculations. Computers can process millions (1,000,000) of instructions per second.


Computers perform calculations with 100% accuracy. Errors may occur due to data inconsistency or inaccuracy.


A computer can perform millions of tasks or calculations with the same consistency and accuracy. It doesn’t feel any fatigue or lack of concentration.


Versatility refers to the capability of a computer to perform different kinds of works with same accuracy and efficiency.


A computer is reliable as it gives consistent result for similar set of data i.e., if we give same set of input any number of times, we will get the same result.


Computer performs all the tasks automatically i.e. it performs tasks without manual intervention.


A computer has built-in memory called primary memory where it stores data. Secondary storage are removable devices such as CDs, pen drives, etc., which are also used to store data.

Q:- What is the block diagram of Computer ?

Ans:- Computer Block Diagram System: Mainly computer system consists of three parts, that are central processing unit (CPU), Input Devices, and Output Devices. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is divided into two parts again: arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU). 

block diagram of computer

Q:- Explain the Various components of Computer ?

Ans:- Input Devices

Input device enables the user to send data, information, or control signals to a computer. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer receives the input and processes it to produce the output.

Some of the popular input devices are:

  1. Keyboard
  2. Mouse
  3. Scanner
  4. Joystick
  5. Light Pen
  6. Microphone
  7. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
  8. Optical Character Reader (OCR)
  9. Digital Camera
  10. Touch screen
  11. Webcam
  12. Biometric Devices

1) Keyboard

The keyboard is a basic input device that is used to enter data into a computer or any other electronic device by pressing keys. It has different sets of keys for letters, numbers, characters, and functions. Keyboards are connected to a computer through USB or a Bluetooth device for wireless communication.

2) Mouse

The mouse is a hand-held input device which is used to move cursor or pointer across the screen. It is designed to be used on a flat surface and generally has left and right button and a scroll wheel between them.

3) Scanner

The scanner uses the pictures and pages of text as input. It scans the picture or a document. The scanned picture or document then converted into a digital format or file and is displayed on the screen as an output.

4)  Joystick

A joystick is also a pointing input device like a mouse. It is made up of a stick with a spherical base. The base is fitted in a socket that allows free movement of the stick. The movement of stick controls the cursor or pointer on the screen.

5) Light Pen

A light pen is a computer input device that looks like a pen. The tip of the light pen contains a light-sensitive detector that enables the user to point to or select objects on the display screen. 

Output Devices

The output device displays the result of the processing of raw data that is entered in the computer through an input device. There are a number of output devices that display output in different ways such as text, images, hard copies, and audio or video.

Some of the popular output devices are:

  1. Monitor
    1. CRT Monitor
    1. LCD Monitor
    1. LED Monitor
    1. Plasma Monitor
  2. Printer
    1. Impact Printers
      1. Character Printers
        1. Dot Matrix printers
        1. Daisy Wheel printers
      1. Line printers
        1. Drum printers
        1. Chain printers
    1. Non-impact printers
      1. Laser printers
      1. Inkjet printers
  3. Projector

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A Central Processing Unit is also called a processor, central processor, or microprocessor. It carries out all the important functions of a computer. It receives instructions from both the hardware and active software and produces output accordingly. It stores all important programs like operating systems and application software. CPU also helps Input and output devices to communicate with each other. Owing to these features of CPU, it is often referred to as the brain of the computer.

CPU is installed or inserted into a CPU socket located on the motherboard. Furthermore, it is provided with a heat sink to absorb and dissipate heat to keep the CPU cool and functioning smoothly.

Generally, a CPU has three components:

  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Control Unit
  • Memory or Storage Unit

Q:- What are the Various Memory Unit of Storage

Ans:- Memory Units

Memory units are used to measure and represent data. Some of the commonly used memory units are:

1) Bit: The computer memory units start from bit. A bit is the smallest memory unit to measure data stored in main memory and storage devices. A bit can have only one binary value out of 0 and 1.

2) Byte: It is the fundamental unit to measure data. It contains 8 bits or is equal to 8 bits. Thus a byte can represent 2*8 or 256 values.

3) Kilobyte: A kilobyte contains 1024 bytes.

4) Megabyte: A megabyte contains 1024 kilobytes.

5) Gigabyte: A gigabyte contains 1024 megabyte.

6) Terabyte: A terabyte contains 1024 gigabytes.

Q:- Explain the Storage Devices used in computer ?

Ans:- Computer Memory

The computer memory holds the data and instructions needed to process raw data and produce output. The computer memory is divided into large number of small parts known as cells. Each cell has a unique address which varies from 0 to memory size minus one.

Computer memory is of two types: Volatile (RAM) and Non-volatile (ROM). The secondary memory (hard disk) is referred as storage not memory.

  •        Primary Memory

Primary Memory is of two types: RAM and ROM.

RAM (Volatile Memory)

It is a volatile memory. It means it does not store data or instructions permanently. When you switch on the computer the data and instructions from the hard disk are stored in RAM.

CPU utilizes this data to perform the required tasks. As soon as you shut down the computer the RAM loses all the data.

ROM (Non-volatile Memory)

It is a non-volatile memory. It means it does not lose its data or programs that are written on it at the time of manufacture. So it is a permanent memory that contains all important data and instructions needed to perform important tasks like the boot process.

Secondary Memory

The secondary storage devices which are built into the computer or connected to the computer are known as a secondary memory of the computer. It is also known as external memory or auxiliary storage.

The secondary memory is accessed indirectly via input/output operations. It is non-volatile, so permanently stores the data even when the computer is turned off or until this data is overwritten or deleted. The CPU can’t directly access the secondary memory. First, the secondary memory data is transferred to primary memory then the CPU can access it.

Examples :-

1) Hard Disk:

All the data stored in c drive of a computer is basically stored in Hard Disk.. It is a magnetic secondary storage device for storing the data and is fixed in the box of a computer. The program which is to be executed is first stored in the hard disk from where it is transferred to RAM.

Q:-    What is Operating System ?

Ans:-          Operating system is the software that acts as an interface between user and computer hardware. A computer needs to communicate with both the hardware and software.

Examples of some popular operating system are Windows, Linux, Unix, MS-DOS, SOLARIS, MAC OS, Gary Arlen Kildall is known as the father of operating system.

Q:-    Write the Functions of Operating System. Explain it?

Ans:- Major functions of Operating System

  • Memory management: It manages both the primary and secondary memory such as RAM, ROM, hard disk, pen drive, etc. It checks and decides the allocations and de-allocation of memory space to different processes. OS decides the amount of memory to be allocated for loading the program instructions and data into RAM.
  • Processor Management: It facilitates processor management, where it decides the order for the processes to access the processor as well as decides the processing time to be allocated for each process.
  • Device/ hardware management: The operating system also contains drivers to manage devices. A driver is a type of translation software that allows the operating system to communicate with devices, and there are different drivers for different devices as each device speaks a different language.
  • Data management: It helps in data management by offering and displaying directories for data management. You can view and manipulate files, folders, e.g., you can move, copy, name, or rename, delete a file or a folder.
  • Provides user interface: It acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It can be a GUI where you can see and click elements on the screen to perform various tasks. It enables you to communicate with the computer even without knowing the computer’s language.
  • I/O management: It manages the input output devices and makes the I/O process smooth and effective. For example, it receives the input provided by the user through an input device and stores it in the main memory. Then it directs the CPU to process this input and accordingly provides the output through an output device such as a monitor.
  • Security: It has a security module to protect the data or information stored in the memories of the computer against malware and unauthorized access. Thus, it not only manages your data but also helps to protect it.

Q:-    What are the types of Operating System ?

Ans:-          Types of Operating system

Operating systems can be classified in different ways; depending on various parameters.

Single-tasking and Multi-tasking

Single Task Operating System : such operating systems allow execution of only a single program at any given instant.

 Multi-Tasking operating system can execute more than one program simultaneously. The processor time, in this case, is divided amongst various processes.

Single user and Multi-user

Single-user operating systems allow only one user to use the system. The desktop systems can be classified as typical single user systems.

Multi-user operating systems allow many users to access the system by maintaining an account of all the registered users.

Real-Time Operating System

Operating systems which ensure that the response time is fixed are categorized as real-time operating systems. They are intended for applications where data needs to be processed quickly, without any significant delays.

Batch Processing Systems

 In a batch processing system, similar jobs are clubbed together and submitted as a block to the processor for execution. User intervention is minimal in such systems. The jobs are picked up one by one and executed.

Q:-    What is FAT?

Ans:-          All the files stored in a computer system can be located through the file system. Two main types of file system are Details of files in a computer are stored and traced using a file system called FAT. FAT is used by the operating system to keep a track of files on hard disk. Various FAT systems are named on the basis of the number of bits used to store the data of FAT. For example : FAT 16 uses 16 bits to store data, FAT 32 uses 32 bits. Another system is NTFS.

Q:-    What steps would you take if the monitor is not showing any display, or the screen is blank?

Ans:-          Monitor is not Showing any Display/ The Screen is Blank

The System is in Sleep Mode: The computer may be in Sleep mode. Click the mouse or press any key on the keyboard to wake it up.

Check All Connections: For a desktop, ensure a proper connection of a cable connecting the monitor and a computer cabinet. Check that the power cables of the monitor and cabinet are plugged into the electric socket and the power is turned on.

Laptop’s Battery is Low:  The laptop’s battery could be very low, causing the laptop to switch off. Connect the charging cable to the laptop and plug it into the electric socket. The laptop will start charging, and in a few minutes, the laptop can be switched on.

Q:-    What would you do when your keyboard or mouse is not responding/ working properly?

Ans:-          If the keyboard is not responding, try the following:

Check Connections: Check the connection of the keyboard to the computer. If it is not connected, or the connection is loose, connect it properly to the computer.

Check for any Damage: Inspect the keyboard cord for any damage. If any damage is found, the keyboard may need to be repaired or replaced.

Change Batteries: For a wireless keyboard, the batteries may have discharged. You may need to change the batteries.

Keys are stuck: If one of the keys on your keyboard is stuck, you need to clean the keyboard. You will have to first turn off the computer. As the keyboard is stuck, you may need to use a mouse if required. Remove dust with the help of a brush, and wipe the keyboard clean with a damp cloth (water should not be dripping from the cloth).

In case the mouse is not working, try the following troubleshooting options:

Check Connections: Make sure that the mouse is securely plugged into the computer.

Check for any Damage: Inspect the mouse cord for any damage. If the damage is noticed, the mouse may need to be replaced.

Check the Cordless Mouse: For a cordless mouse which is not working, switch off, and then switch on the cordless mouse. This should re-establish a connection with the system.

Clean the Mouse: Try cleaning the mouse with a damp cloth. Clean the area around the button located on the underside of the mouse.

Q:-    What troubleshooting step will you take when the printer is not responding?


Printer is Not Responding (Not Printing)

The printer could not be responding due to a number of reasons. Check for each of the following causes, taking necessary action as required:

The Printer is Not Connected Properly or Not Switched On: Ensure that the printer cables are connected properly. If the printer is not switched on, switch it on.

The Printer is Out Of Paper: If the printer does not have paper, put paper in the paper tray and try printing again.

The Printer Paper Jam (Paper is caught in the Printer): Open the printer and remove the paper caught in the printer. Close the printer and try printing again.

The Ink Cartridge of Printer is Empty: Most printers give a warning message when the ink levels are low (insufficient for printing). Change the ink cartridge and try again.

 Incorrect Printer Driver: The printer driver may be incorrect. You would need to install a new printer driver. The latest driver can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s website. Some printers, when connected to the internet, give a message when driver updates are available.

Q:-    What steps do you need to take to change the default printer?

Ans:-          Change the Default Printer

To change the Default Printer, open the devices and printer dialog box. Click Start button> Control Panel > Hardware and Sound > Devices and Printers. Alternatively, click Start button > Control Panel > All Control Panel Items > Devices and Printers.

Q:-    What checks would you undertake when the speaker is not working?

Ans:-          When you are not getting sound from the speakers, troubleshoot using the suggestions given below:

Check Speaker Volume – Check the volume level of the speakers. Click the Audio button in Task Bar to make sure the sound is turned on and that the volume is up. Checking for the volume level of the Speaker

Check Audio Player Controls – Many audios and video players have their own separate audio controls. Ensure that the sound is turned on and that the volume is set large enough to be heard.

Check the Cables – In case external speakers are used, ensure that the speakers are plugged into the electric socket, turned on, and connected to the correct audio port or a USB port on your system. If your computer has color-coded ports, the audio output port will usually be green.

Check the Sound Using Headphones – Connect headphones to the audio output port of your computer, and check whether you can hear sound from the headphones. If you can, that means there is something wrong with your speakers. Contact a Service Engineer.

Q:-    What are the troubleshooting steps taken when an application freezes?

Ans:-          An Application is Frozen

Sometimes an application may freeze – When this happens, you will not be able to close the window or click any button within the application. The following troubleshooting options may be tried:

Forcefully End the Application – On a PC / Laptop keyboard, press (and hold) Ctrl+Alt+Delete (the Control, Alt, and Delete keys). This will open the Windows Task Manager.

Not Responding – Select the application which is not responding from the list and click the End Task button. This forcefully terminates the application. Now restart the application.

Restart the Computer – If you are unable to forcefully end an application, close all running programs and restart the computer. If you are unable to shutdown/ restart your system, perform a hard reboot by pressing the Power button, i.e. manually turn off the computer.

Q:-    How can one free disk space on the computer?


Run a Disk Clean Up Application

 To get some more disk space, run the Disk Cleanup Application. On the General tab shown in Figure 1.22, click on the Disk Cleanup button, to start disk cleanup.

Once the Disk Cleanup is complete, the Disk Cleanup dialog box opens (Figure 1.23). Click on Clean up system files button. This will delete any unnecessary system-related files from the local disk.

Delete Unused Files and Programs

Periodically delete files and programs you do not need. This will increase the free space on your disk, increasing the performance of your computer. Images and videos take up a lot of space. These can be moved to an external drive. This will free some space on the disk drive.

Empty Your Recycle Bin

This can be done by right-clicking on the Recycle Bin icon (usually on the desktop), and then selecting Empty Recycle Bin.

Q:-    How do we remove temporary files?

Ans:-          Remove Temporary files

It is important to periodically remove the temporary files and the Internet browsing history. This too will increase the free space on your disk.

To do this you would need to first open the network and sharing dialog box. Click Start button> Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center (Figure 1.25 same as Figure 7.25). Alternatively click, Start button> Control panel > All Control Panel Items> Network and Sharing Center

On the bottom left corner of this screen, click on the link Internet Options. This opens the Internet Properties dialog box (Figure 1.26).

Select the General tab. Under Browsing History, check the Delete browsing history on exit checkbox, and then click the Delete…button. This deletes the browsing history. Click the OK button to exit.

Q:-    Why is disk defragmentation required? How can we achieve disk defragmentation?

Ans:-          Disk Defragmentation

The information in our files changes frequently. This results in gaps or spaces in the file stored in the memory (hard disk). The file thus takes more space on the computer, and may cause the computer to slow down.

− Open the Windows Explorer Application and click on My Computer.

− Highlight the C drive and right click to get a pop-up menu.

 − Select the Properties option from this popup Menu.

− The dialog box showing the properties of the local disk (C:) is displayed

Q:-    What steps do we take to remove unused shortcuts and program services?

Ans:-          Remove Unused Programs

Old or unused programs that are not being used may still have components running behind the scenes when you start your computer. This can slow down the system. To prevent these programs from running when your computer starts, turn off unused program services. For this purpose, from the Windows startup, click Start button > All Programs > Startup. Right-click the shortcuts that you do not need and click Delete.

Disable Unused Program Services:

This is done in two steps. First, the unused program service is stopped. It is then disabled so that it does not run at Startup.

Click Start button> Control Panel> Administrative Tools> Services. For each program/service that you are sure that you do not need, click on the Service to highlight it, click the Stop link to stop the service from running.

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